0.      UBWOROZI

0.1.Intangiriro

Mu Karere ka Gisagara, Ubworozi, nka kimwe mu bigize inkingi y’ubukungu, ntibwasigaye inyuma. Gahunda ya Girinka Munyarwanda n’umushinga wa APEL (ubworozi bw’amatungo magufi) n’abandi bafatanyabikorwa bagiye bashyigikira ubworozi. Ubworozi bwiganje ni ubw’inka, ihene, ingurube, inkoko, inkwavu, intama n’inzuki.

0.2.Gahunda ya Girinka Munyarwanda

Gahunda ya Girinka (One cow for one family) yatangiye ari igitekerezo cya Nyakubahwa Perezida wa Repubulika y’u Rwanda cyo koroza inka buri rugo kugira ngo rubashe kwihaza mu biribwa, cyane cyane ku ntungamubiri ziva ku bikomoka ku matungo, ubwo byari bimaze kugaragara ko 43% by’abana mu gihugu bafite hasi y’imyaka itanu (5) bari bafite ibibazo by’imirire mibi. Iyi Gahunda ishingiye kandi ku cyerekezo n’ingamba bikubiye muri Vision 2020, muri EDPRS no kuri IDP. Yemejwe n’inama y’Abaminisitiri yo kuwa 12/04/2006 ari nayo yayihaye icyerekezo cyo gufasha buri rugo rukennye rw’Umunyarwanda kubona no korora inka ya kijyambere, hagamijwe ko iyo nka izatanga umukamo, nawo ugafasha urugo kuvugurura imirire yarwo, kongera umusaruro ukomoka ku buhinzi no gusagurira isoko amata azongera amafaranga mu mufuka, bityo iyo nka ikazageza abagize umuryango ku bukire. Iyi Gahunda yahise ishyirwa mu bikorwa, itangira ifite inzira ebyiri zuzuzanya ari zo: Girinka y’inguzanyo na Girinka y’ingabirano.

Girinka y’inguzanyo cyangwa Girinka banki; yari ishingiye ku bukangurambaga bugamije gushishikariza Umunyarwanda kugira inka binyuze mu nguzanyo za banki. Icyo gihe Leta yashyizeho ikigega cy’ingwate (fond de garantie) cyatumaga banki iha abaturage inguzanyo yo kugura inka.  

Girinka y’ingabirano yatangiye mu mwaka wa 2006, Nyakubahwa Perezida wa Repubulika agabira inka abaturage mu Turere twagaragayemo ibibazo bikabije by’imirire mibi mu bana. Mu Turere icyenda (9) twatangiriwemo iyi gahunda ya Girinka y’ingabirano, n’Akarere ka Gisagara kari karimo. Utundi Turere 8 ni Huye, Nyaruguru, Nyamagabe, Nyanza, Ngororero, Karongi, Rutsiro na Gicumbi. Muri 2007 na 2008, iyi Gahunda ya Girinka yagejejwe mu Turere twose (30) tw’Igihugu.

Uko imyaka yatambukaga, haziyemo gahunda ya Girinka y’inyiturano. Iyo inka y’ingabirano yabyaraga, uwagabiwe yituraga iyayo igahabwa undi muryango wabaga waratoranyijwe n’abaturage mu nteko rusange y’abaturage.

Kubufatanye bwa Leta, abikorera, imiryango itegamiye kuri Leta, sosiyete sivile n’abaturage; iyi gahunda ya Girinka yakomeje gushyirwa mu bikorwa mu Karere ka Gisagara.

Imbonerahamwe ya 10: Gahunda ya Girinka Munyarwanda

N0

Umurenge

Umwaka

Igiteranyo

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011/ 2012

2012/ 2013

2013/ 2014

2014/ 2015

1

Gikonko

4

8

28

25

52

71

82

107

70

447

2

Gishubi

7

131

94

37

36

126

86

99

95

711

3

Kansi

3

10

41

17

49

71

125

144

105

565

4

Kibirizi

3

13

13

23

23

50

82

121

63

391

5

Kigembe

0

28

30

22

53

92

90

122

101

538

6

Mamba

0

14

230

36

38

147

94

109

115

783

7

Muganza

24

24

21

41

23

90

128

99

95

545

8

Mugombwa

18

27

24

12

34

81

84

113

85

478

9

Mukindo

6

11

38

35

45

123

88

99

103

548

10

Musha

0

16

44

31

26

101

85

108

93

504

11

Ndora

4

49

31

9

11

97

89

85

86

461

12

Nyanza

4

3

12

23

51

103

108

115

85

504

13

Save

5

4

17

12

28

96

125

101

95

483

Igiteranyo

78

338

623

323

469

1248

1266

1422

1191

6958



        


Kuva muri 2006 kugeza Kamena 2015, mu Karere ka Gisagara hamaze gutangwa inka ibihumbi bitandatu magana cyenda mirongo itanu n’umunani (6958) muri gahunda ya Girinka Munyarwanda. Gahunda ya Girinka ntiyingereye umubare w’inka gusa, yanatumye hororwa inka za kijyambere zitandukanye n’indatamahembe zororwaga mbere. Umusaruro w’ibikomoka ku matungo wariyongereye n’uw’ibihingwa uriyongera bitewe no gukoresha ifumbire y’imborera. Imibereho myiza y’abaturage yarazamutse, imirire yitabwaho ndetse haboneka amafaranga aturutse ku igurishwa ry’ibikomoka ku matungo. Girinka Munyarwanda ikomeje no gushyigikira gahunda y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge kuko abahana inka baba bagiranye igihango cy’ubukire.

Akarere ka Gisagara karashima uruhare rwa Leta y’Ubumwe n’Abafatanyabikorwa batandukanye barimo DCDP, FARG, PADEBL, RARDA, IOM, RAB, SEND COW, CARE, Action AID, Croix Rouge, ZOE Ministry, Reseaux des Femmes, BENIMPUHWE, CNF, ARTCF, FFP, Association DUHOZANYE, n’abandi.


 

0.3.Ubworozi muri rusange

 Ubworozi bwiganje mu Karere ka Gisagara ni inka, ihene, ingurube, inkoko n’inkwavu. Ubwo bworozi bwakomeje kwitabwaho, hongerwa umubare n’ubwiza bwa buri bwoko bw’amatungo.

Imbonerahamwe ya 11: Ubworozi muri rusange mu Karere ka Gisagara

Itungo

Ubwoko

Kugeza 2010

2011 - 2015

Umubare

Ijanisha (%)

Umubare

Ijanisha (%)

Inka

Frisian

14

0.08

273

1.1

Imvange

1330

7.71

7671

31.0

Inyarwanda

15902

92.19

16529

66.8

Jersey

3

0.02

254

1.0

Igiteranyo

17249

100

24727

100.0

Ihene

 

 

Inyarwanda

50525

98.15

57435

95.3

Boer

5

0.01

417

0.7

Imvange

947

1.84

2401

4.0

Igiteranyo

51477

100

60253

100.0

Intama

 

 

Inyarwanda

2191

100

1030

89.0

Merinos

0

0

54

4.7

Imvange

0

0

73

6.3

Igiteranyo

2191

100

1157

100.0

Ingurube

Inyarwanda

13328

91.3

17856

70.9

Landrace

1080

7.4

3858

15.3

Large white

0

0

609

2.4

Imvange

336

2.3

2323

9.2

Igiteranyo

14598

100

25192

100.0

Inkoko

 

Inyarwanda

54349

100

66925

99.8

Imvange

0

0

147

0.2

Igiteranyo

54349

100

67072

100.0

Inkwavu

 

 

Exotic

11

0.05

1772

6.7

Inyarwanda

21077

96.06

20659

77.9

Imvange

854

3.89

4073

15.4

Igiteranyo

21941

100

26505

100.0

Imizinga

 

 

Inyarwanda

2455

91.8

3288

87.8

Longs

0

0

0

0.0

Kenyan

219

8.2

457

12.2

Igiteranyo

2674

100

3745

100.0



Imbonerahamwe ya 10 n’igishushanyo cya 7 bigaragaza ishusho y’ubworozi muri rusange mu Karere ka Gisagara kugeza muri 2015. Ubwoko bw’amatungo bwariyongereye cyane nyuma ya 2010 hanitabwa cyane ku ivugurura ryayo. Kugeza 2010, umubare w’inka wari 17249, zikaba zariyongereyeho inka 7478 mu myaka itanu gusa (2011-2015) zigera ku nka 24727. Hitawe kandi ku ivugurura ry’inka hagamijwe kongera umukamo binyuze muri gahunda yo kuzitera intanga. Inka z’inyarwanda zaragabanutse ziva kuri 92% y’inka zose muri 2010 zigera kuri 67% y’inka zose muri 2015. Ubwoko bw’imvange bwariyongereye buva kuri 7.7% y’inka zose muri 2010 bugera kuri 31% y’inka zose muri 2015.

Amatungo magufi nayo yariyongereye haba mu mubare no mu bwiza. Ingurube zavuye ku 14598 muri 2010 zigera kuri 25192 mu mwaka wa 2015. Ingurube z’inyarwanda zaragabanutse ziva kuri 91% y’ingurube zose muri 2010 zigera kuri 70% y’ingurube zose muri 2015. Ingurube za “landrace” zariyongereye ziva kuri 7% zigera kuri 15%, imvange zavuye kuri 2.3% muri 2010 zigera ku 9.2% y’ingurube zose muri 2015.

0.4.Gutera intanga no gukingira inka

Mu rwego rwo kongera umusaruro w’ibikomoka ku matungo, kuvugurura amaraso yayo no kwita ku buzima bwayo, inka zarakingiwe zinaterwa intanga.

Imbonerahamwe ya 12: Umubare w’inka inka zakingiwe n’izatewe intanga

        Umwaka

 

Igikorwa

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011/2012

2012/2013

2013/2014

2014/2015

Gutera intanga

93

188

264

376

1820

2360

2602

3009

3153

Gukingira inka

2041

2706

4297

6032

9563

10734

11783

12500

14946

 

Imbonerahamwe ya 12 n’igishushanyo cya 8 bigaragaza umubare w’inka zatewe intanga n’izakingiwe, bikanerekana ukwiyongera kwa buri mwaka. Ukwiyongera cyane kwatangiye mu mwaka wa 2010, aho inka zatewe intanga zageze ku 1820, mu gihe mu mwaka wa 2006 zari 93 gusa. Mu mwaka wa 2014/2015, inka zatewe intanga zageze ku nka 3153. Inka zakingiwe zageze ku 9563 mu mwaka wa 2010, mu gihe mu mwaka wa 2006 zari 2041. Inka zikingiye zakomeje kwiyongera nyuma ya 2010 aho zageze ku nka 14946 mu mwaka wa 2014/2015 wonyine.